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Blood sugar levels: what’s normal, what’s not and how to measure them

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Blood sugar levels: what’s normal, what’s not and how to measure them


Blood sugar levels: what’s normal, what’s not, and how to measure them; What blood glucose levels mean and what range is healthy. I hope I haven’t scared you away, but when it comes to our health it’s important to know exactly what’s going on inside of our bodies. Without further ado, let’s get into what blood sugar means, how to measure it, and everything else you need to know.

What is blood sugar?
Blood sugar, or glucose, is your body’s main energy source. We get glucose from the food we eat, and our blood carries it around to all the cells in the body to give them the energy to function. Glucose mainly comes from the carbohydrates we eat, though our bodies can convert protein and fat into sugar too if needed.

Glucose from protein is typically stored in the liver and doesn’t enter the bloodstream, so eating protein-rich foods won’t raise your blood sugar too much. Fats slow down the digestion of carbohydrates, which causes a delayed rise in blood sugar. High blood sugar can be an issue because it usually leads to sugar crashes, which are no fun — symptoms include fatigue, headaches, and the jitters. So, eat meals balanced with protein, fat, and carbs to avoid this.

Blood sugar is closely related to insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps your body use glucose. Insulin keeps your blood sugar from getting too high or too low — if you eat more sugar than you need at the moment, the hormone helps store the glucose in your liver until it’s needed for energy.

You probably also know about blood sugar in the context of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which people are unable to make insulin, so they need to inject the hormone in order to keep their blood sugar levels stable. People with Type 2 diabetes, which usually occurs later in life, either don’t secrete insulin or are resistant to it.

How do I measure blood sugar?
If you have diabetes, you probably already keep a watchful eye on your blood sugar through the use of a continuous glucose monitor (a CGM) or a blood sugar meter (which involves pricking your fingertip). Blood sugar measurement is also typically included in routine lab work for people without diabetes — your physician will usually order a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test, which measures your average blood sugar over the past two to three months.

Say your A1C test comes back with no sign of diabetes — constantly measuring your blood sugar can still be helpful. For instance, some people experiment with using a CGM to see how their body responds to different types of food. However, it’s good to note that this is a fairly cost-intensive way of figuring out your nutrition and writing down a food diary that includes how you felt after each meal will also help you figure out what to eat.

What should my blood sugar levels be?
Your blood sugar level changes depending on what you’ve eaten, whether you’ve exercised and other factors (more on that later) but we have some general guidelines to determine what levels are healthy.

For generally healthy individuals (without diabetes) who haven’t eaten for eight hours or more, a normal blood sugar level is between 3.885-5.495mmol/L. When you’ve eaten in the past two hours, it should be no higher than 7.8mmol/L.

Only a medical professional can diagnose diabetes or another issue with your blood sugar, so if you’re concerned about your blood sugar levels, check with a doctor.

How can I tell if my blood sugar is irregular?
Again, only a doctor can diagnose a problem with your blood sugar. But you may be wondering how to know if it’s something you should get checked out. There can be two main issues with your blood sugar — either it’s consistently too high or too low. Even if you don’t have diabetes, there are some signs that your blood sugar levels are not functioning normally.

Hypoglycemia is a condition in which your blood sugar is too low. Signs include an irregular heartbeat, fatigue, shakiness, and tingling or numbness in your face. If you consistently feel this way when you get hungry or between meals, talk to your healthcare provider.

On the flipside, hyperglycemia happens when your blood sugar is too high and this can happen to nondiabetics. Symptoms include frequent urination, increased thirst, and headache. If you think you’re hyperglycemic and can’t keep fluids or food down, call for emergency medical assistance.

What factors affect blood sugar?
You can guess that carbohydrate intake and insulin production are at least partly responsible for your blood sugar levels. But the list is much longer — almost every lifestyle choice you make can affect your blood sugar.

Here’s just a partial list.

  1. Exercise can affect insulin sensitivity, leading to lower blood sugar for up to 48 hours.
  2. Alcohol intake increases insulin production, causing low blood sugar.
  3. Stress hormones like cortisol can raise blood sugar because your body wants access to energy in order to escape what it perceives as a dangerous situation.
  4. Medications, especially statins and diuretics, can raise blood sugar. Statins are used to treat cholesterol, and diuretics for high blood pressure.
  5. Diet is a major player in blood sugar. Eating too many simple carbs at once can cause levels to skyrocket, while protein intake leads to a slower increase in blood sugar.
  6. Dehydration raises blood sugar because with less water in your body the glucose concentration will be higher.
  7. Other surprising factors can affect your blood sugar, like a sunburn or gum disease, so if you’re dealing with a blood sugar issue and can’t figure out what’s causing your spikes and dips, talk to a health care professional.

    —:cnet

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Education

Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana with enviable academic reputation

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Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana

Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana with enviable academic reputation

Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana: The competition among senior high schools in Ghana is one of the fierce thugs in the country’s educational landscape.

Ghanaians are so much concerned about their high schools. The grading of high schools into categories by the  Ghana Education Service set them apart based on the academic, and resource endowments. These categories are; Category A, B, C, and D with Category A schools being the top schools with more resources and the highest number of graduates landing in the top public universities in the country. Category D schools are those considered to be less privileged

It is every parent’s dream to see their wards have their high school education in one of the category A schools.

To provide clarity and motivation to other schools to work hard  academically in order to become part of the top ranking senior high schools in the country, we have made a selection the top four senior high schools with an enviable academic reputation. These include:

 

1. Presbyterian Boys Senior High School (PRESEC-Legon)

presec-entrance Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana

The six times winner of the National Science and Maths Quiz has a lengthy academic achievements which spans from the 90’s to date. PRESEC has produced notable personalities in the country such as Professor Ernest Aryeetey former Vice-Chancelor of University of Ghana, Professor Aaron Mike-Oquaye former speaker of Ghana’s parliament, Kwaku Sintim-Misa an actor and a political satirist, Lucy Quist first Ghanaian woman to become CEO of a multinational company, and many others.

 

2. Prempeh College

Prempeh College located in Kumasi in the Ashanti Region is undoubtedly one of the best high schools in the country. The three times winner of National Robotics Championship has been a major contestor to PRESEC-Legon in National Science and Maths Quiz. Graduates of Prempeh have been topping the Admission list of Kwame Nkrumaha University of Science and Technology (KNUST) especially in the sciences.

 

3. Mfantsipim School

mfantsipim school Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana

Still enjoying their past glories, Mfantsipim School which is affectionately called ‘The School’ by its old boys has been two times champions of the National Science and Maths Quiz. The school has produced important personalities in the country including Lawyer Tsatsu Tsikata, Kwasi Twum of Multimed Group, Van Vicker, Hon. Joe Ghartey, and several other personsalities.

 

4. Bishop Herman College

Bishop herman Top 4 Senior Highs Schools in Ghana

Bishop Herman College a Catholic Mission school has been able to hold unto its past glories and continues to thrive in its academic achievements. Bishop Herman stands as the best performing school in the Volta Region according to WAEC rankings and their passion for science led them to win the maiden edition of the National Robotics Competition and two subsequent competitions. The school runs course in General Science, General Arts, Business, and Agriculture.

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Education

NAGRAT calls for up to 20% salary increment for workers

The National Association of Graduate Teachers (NAGRAT) is seeking an urgent increase in salaries by between 15 and 20 percent, for all government workers

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NAGRAT calls for up to 20% salary increment for workers

The National Association of Graduate Teachers (NAGRAT) is seeking an urgent increase in salaries by between 15 and 20 percent, for all government workers, especially teachers.

In an interview with Citi News ahead of the May Day celebrations, the President of the association, Angel Carbonu, said the increased cost of living necessitated the call for salary increments.

“A 15 to 20 percent increment in income will not be bad looking at the situation that confronts us as workers,” he said.

“When it comes to food items, our wives and our sisters and our mothers will tell you that prices of these commodities have all shot up in the market,” Angel Carbonu added. “The banks that we work with [have written] to us as an organisation amending the interest rates that we have agreed with them.”

Also, ahead of the May Day celebration, the Teachers and Educational Workers Union (TEWU) reiterated concerns with the conditions of service of its members.

It highlighted the non-conclusion of negotiation on the conditions of service for the public universities, the 2021 minimum wage, and the failure of some directors to implement the reviewed conditions for GES staff.

Its grievances compelled it to go on strike in January.

TEWU said the strike was necessitated by the failure of the Fair Wages and Salaries Commission to conclude negotiation on their demand for better conditions of service.

The union in a statement said it was not “happy with the way some GES directors want to use rough tactics by holding on to the old conditions of service with the excuse that they do not have the hard copy of the review document though the soft copy is available.”

On the conditions of service used for workers in public universities, TEWU said “we hope to have a clear indication on the way forward when the national labour commission makes pronouncements on the issue”.

Upon further clarity, it expressed hope that “Government agencies concerned will respect the outcome to sustain industrial harmony in our tertiary institutions.”

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Legon: National Service Personnel falls from 4th Floor of Sarbah Hall

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Service Personnel falls from 4th Floor

The authorities of the University of Ghana have called for calm after a man believed to be a national service person, reportedly fell from the 4th floor of the Mensah Sarbah Hall to the ground.
He is reportedly receiving medical care at the Legon Hospital.

He is said to have fallen from the fourth floor of the Mensah Sarbah Hall Annex A at dawn on Friday, April 23, 2021.

The Dean of Students, Prof Godfred Bokpin has called for calm and said investigations were underway to establish what really happened and that the facts would be put out.

“What has happened has happened, but the issue is being investigated, the police, the hall authorities, we are all involved trying to get to the bottom of it, but whilst we are at that, we will urge every student to be calm and keep to their core activities…, and they should not feed into the rumor making rounds but very soon an official communication will be issued by the university.”

The victim, whom some have identified as Wahab Abdulai, is said to have slipped and fallen from the balcony.

He is expected to be transferred from the Legon Hospital to the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital for further treatment.

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